Nancy Fan-Paul MD MPH FACS

Greater New York Ophthalmology Eye Care

718-353-8460

136-40 39th Ave, Suite 403
 Flushing, 11354

Patient Education

Greater New York Ophthalmology Eye Care is proud to be your partner in health care. These educaitonal summaries are provided for your information. We are here to answer any of your questions or concerns.

Eye Anatomy

The eye is a complex organ that works much like a camera, focusing light rays and forming an image. On the surface of the eye is the cornea, a thin, clear layer of tissue that provides a window for light to pass through. In a healthy eye, the cornea bends or refracts light rays so they focus precisely on the retina in the back of the eye. ...


Read More...

Comprehensive Eye Examination

Regular eye examinations are important in maintaining eye health. During a comprehensive eye examination, eye diseases or other abnormalities that are not yet causing symptoms can be detected. Early intervention is crucial in preventing vision loss from a disease such as glaucoma, which may not cause symptoms until significant and irreversible damage has taken place. Early detection of eye problems gives a patient a choice of treatment options, and reduces the risk of permanent damage. ...


Read More...

Eye Infections

Eye infections can occur when a patient has been exposed to a virus, fungus or bacterium. Different types of infections strike particular portions of the eye. Both eyes or only one may become infected.

Symptoms of an Eye Infection

Common symptoms of an eye infection may include the following symptoms: ...


Read More...

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of related diseases that damage the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss and possible blindness. Many people affected with glaucoma do not experience symptoms, and may not be aware that they have the disease until they have lost a significant amount of vision. With early detection and treatment, however, eyes can be protected against the serious loss of vision or blindness. Catching glaucoma at an early, treatable stage is one important reason to have regular, thorough eye examinations. A leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States, glaucoma affects patients of all ages. ...


Read More...

Dry Eye

Dry eye is a common condition in which the eyes are insufficiently lubricated, leading to itching, redness and pain. The eyes can become dry and irritated because the tear ducts are not producing a sufficient number of tears, or because there is a chemical imbalance in the tears themselves. Natural tears require a particular chemical balance to lubricate the eyes efficiently. ...


Read More...

Sjogren's Syndrome

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that has two common identifying symptoms: dry mouth and dry eyes, but it may progress to affect joints, skin and vital organs. Women are more likely to suffer from this condition and patients are usually diagnosed with the disorder after the age of 40. The cause of Sjogren's syndrome is unknown, although genetic components seem to put some individuals at greater risk for developing the disease. There is some evidence that Sjogren's syndrome may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection. Often the syndrome occurs in patients who have another immune disorder, like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. ...


Read More...

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis, commonly referred to as pink eye, is an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. The inflammation affects the blood vessels in the eye and gives the eye a pink or red appearance. Pink eye can be caused by either a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, a foreign object in the eye or a blocked tear duct. Pink eye can be contagious, so proper diagnosis and prompt treatment are important. ...


Read More...

Chalazion

A chalazion is a small, non-infectious lump that develops in the upper or lower eyelid due to the blockage of the meibomian gland, an oil gland in the eyelid. The meibomian gland produces fluid that lubricates the eye. While children do develop chalazions, they more commonly affect adults between the ages of 30 to 50. ...


Read More...

Flashes and Floaters

Flashes and floaters of the eye are usually the result of age-related changes to the vitreous, which is the thick gel firmly attached to the retina from birth. During the aging process, however, the vitreous becomes thinner and more watery, and at some point pulls away from the retina. This is known as a posterior vitreous separation or detachment (PVD). During PVD, tissue debris that was once secure in the firm vitreous gel loosens and moves around, casting shadows on the retina. ...


Read More...

Keratitis

Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea. Keratitis often develops as the result of an infection, but can also be caused by a small scratch or prolonged contact lens wear. If left untreated, keratitis can lead to serious complications and can permanently damage vision.

Types of Keratitis

There are several types of keratitis. They include: ...


Read More...

Diabetic Eye Disease

Patients with diabetes are at a higher risk for developing eye conditions as a complication their disease. Over 40 percent of patients diagnosed with diabetes develop some form of eye disease as a result of their disease. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and the primary cause of blindness in the United States. ...


Read More...

Bifocal and Multifocal Eyeglass Lenses

Presbyopia, which is the visual inability of the lens of the eye to focus on objects that are close, may take years to develop. Patients usually begin to show symptoms of presbyopia in their early- to mid-40s. Bifocal or multifocal eyeglasses will provide patients with presbyopia the ability to see clearly at all distances. ...


Read More...

Contact Lenses

A contact lens is a thin, convex disc that floats on the surface of the eye, providing vision correction. With advances in optical technology, most people can use contact lenses, regardless of the type or extent of their vision problems. This includes patients with astigmatism, and those who need bifocal or multifocal lenses. In some cases, however, contact lenses are contraindicated. ...


Read More...

Vitamins for Healthy Eyes

Eye vitamins can help maintain eye health and protect my eyes against several different diseases, including those that most frequently affect aging eyes, including macular degeneration.

Experts disagree on which nutrients can prevent eye disease or reduce vision loss. Studies have been conducted to help me learn more about the relationship between vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and eye health. The general consensus is that the same things that are good for your body are good for your eyes: a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, drinking at least six glasses of water a day, regular exercise, and avoidance of cigarette smoke. ...


Read More...

Myopia

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness or shortsightedness, is a condition of the eyes in which nearby objects can be seen clearly, and but distant objects cannot. Almost a third of people in the United States experience some degree of nearsightedness.

Causes of Myopia

The curve of the cornea, the clear covering of the eye, refracts (bends) light, directing it to the retina, the back surface of the eye. When the corneal curvature is abnormal, or the shape of the eye is abnormally oblong, rather than round, it is more difficult for the eyes to focus light directly onto the retina. Instead, the focus is in front of the retina. This results in blurred vision. ...


Read More...

Presbyopia

Presbyopia, a condition in which the eyes gradually lose the ability to focus at a close range, is a normal part of the aging process. It occurs when the lens of the eye loses its flexibility, causing nearby objects to appear blurry. Symptoms take years to develop; most patients begin to show signs in their early-to-mid 40s. Typically, the condition worsens until about age 65. Presbyopia is diagnosed with a routine eye examination, and is treated with corrective lenses or surgery. ...


Read More...


Back to top

 

Eye Anatomy

The eye is a complex organ that works much like a camera, focusing light rays and forming an image. On the surface of the eye is the cornea, a thin, clear layer of tissue that provides a window for light to pass through. In a healthy eye, the cornea bends or refracts light rays so they focus precisely on the retina in the back of the eye. ...


Read More...
 

Comprehensive Eye Examination

Regular eye examinations are important in maintaining eye health. During a comprehensive eye examination, eye diseases or other abnormalities that are not yet causing symptoms can be detected. Early intervention is crucial in preventing vision loss from a disease such as glaucoma, which may not cause symptoms until significant and irreversible damage has taken place. Early detection of eye problems gives a patient a choice of treatment options, and reduces the risk of permanent damage. ...


Read More...
 

Eye Infections

Eye infections can occur when a patient has been exposed to a virus, fungus or bacterium. Different types of infections strike particular portions of the eye. Both eyes or only one may become infected.

Symptoms of an Eye Infection

Common symptoms of an eye infection may include the following symptoms: ...


Read More...
 

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of related diseases that damage the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss and possible blindness. Many people affected with glaucoma do not experience symptoms, and may not be aware that they have the disease until they have lost a significant amount of vision. With early detection and treatment, however, eyes can be protected against the serious loss of vision or blindness. Catching glaucoma at an early, treatable stage is one important reason to have regular, thorough eye examinations. A leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States, glaucoma affects patients of all ages. ...


Read More...
 

Dry Eye

Dry eye is a common condition in which the eyes are insufficiently lubricated, leading to itching, redness and pain. The eyes can become dry and irritated because the tear ducts are not producing a sufficient number of tears, or because there is a chemical imbalance in the tears themselves. Natural tears require a particular chemical balance to lubricate the eyes efficiently. ...


Read More...
 

Sjogren's Syndrome

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that has two common identifying symptoms: dry mouth and dry eyes, but it may progress to affect joints, skin and vital organs. Women are more likely to suffer from this condition and patients are usually diagnosed with the disorder after the age of 40. The cause of Sjogren's syndrome is unknown, although genetic components seem to put some individuals at greater risk for developing the disease. There is some evidence that Sjogren's syndrome may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection. Often the syndrome occurs in patients who have another immune disorder, like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. ...


Read More...
 

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis, commonly referred to as pink eye, is an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. The inflammation affects the blood vessels in the eye and gives the eye a pink or red appearance. Pink eye can be caused by either a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, a foreign object in the eye or a blocked tear duct. Pink eye can be contagious, so proper diagnosis and prompt treatment are important. ...


Read More...
 

Chalazion

A chalazion is a small, non-infectious lump that develops in the upper or lower eyelid due to the blockage of the meibomian gland, an oil gland in the eyelid. The meibomian gland produces fluid that lubricates the eye. While children do develop chalazions, they more commonly affect adults between the ages of 30 to 50. ...


Read More...
 

Flashes and Floaters

Flashes and floaters of the eye are usually the result of age-related changes to the vitreous, which is the thick gel firmly attached to the retina from birth. During the aging process, however, the vitreous becomes thinner and more watery, and at some point pulls away from the retina. This is known as a posterior vitreous separation or detachment (PVD). During PVD, tissue debris that was once secure in the firm vitreous gel loosens and moves around, casting shadows on the retina. ...


Read More...
 

Keratitis

Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea. Keratitis often develops as the result of an infection, but can also be caused by a small scratch or prolonged contact lens wear. If left untreated, keratitis can lead to serious complications and can permanently damage vision.

Types of Keratitis

There are several types of keratitis. They include: ...


Read More...
 

Diabetic Eye Disease

Patients with diabetes are at a higher risk for developing eye conditions as a complication their disease. Over 40 percent of patients diagnosed with diabetes develop some form of eye disease as a result of their disease. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and the primary cause of blindness in the United States. ...


Read More...
 

Bifocal and Multifocal Eyeglass Lenses

Presbyopia, which is the visual inability of the lens of the eye to focus on objects that are close, may take years to develop. Patients usually begin to show symptoms of presbyopia in their early- to mid-40s. Bifocal or multifocal eyeglasses will provide patients with presbyopia the ability to see clearly at all distances. ...


Read More...
 

Contact Lenses

A contact lens is a thin, convex disc that floats on the surface of the eye, providing vision correction. With advances in optical technology, most people can use contact lenses, regardless of the type or extent of their vision problems. This includes patients with astigmatism, and those who need bifocal or multifocal lenses. In some cases, however, contact lenses are contraindicated. ...


Read More...
 

Vitamins for Healthy Eyes

Eye vitamins can help maintain eye health and protect our eyes against several different diseases, including those that most frequently affect aging eyes, including macular degeneration.

Experts disagree on which nutrients can prevent eye disease or reduce vision loss. Studies have been conducted to help us learn more about the relationship between vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and eye health. The general consensus is that the same things that are good for your body are good for your eyes: a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, drinking at least six glasses of water a day, regular exercise, and avoidance of cigarette smoke. ...


Read More...
 

Myopia

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness or shortsightedness, is a condition of the eyes in which nearby objects can be seen clearly, and but distant objects cannot. Almost a third of people in the United States experience some degree of nearsightedness.

Causes of Myopia

The curve of the cornea, the clear covering of the eye, refracts (bends) light, directing it to the retina, the back surface of the eye. When the corneal curvature is abnormal, or the shape of the eye is abnormally oblong, rather than round, it is more difficult for the eyes to focus light directly onto the retina. Instead, the focus is in front of the retina. This results in blurred vision. ...


Read More...
 

Presbyopia

Presbyopia, a condition in which the eyes gradually lose the ability to focus at a close range, is a normal part of the aging process. It occurs when the lens of the eye loses its flexibility, causing nearby objects to appear blurry. Symptoms take years to develop; most patients begin to show signs in their early-to-mid 40s. Typically, the condition worsens until about age 65. Presbyopia is diagnosed with a routine eye examination, and is treated with corrective lenses or surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Cataracts

Each year, cataracts affect millions of people, including more than half of all Americans aged 60 and older. A cataract is a painless clouding of the eye's natural lens that is caused by a buildup of protein. A cataract can form in one or both eyes. If left untreated, cataracts worsen over time and interfere with everyday activities such as reading or driving. Night vision is usually most affected. When cataracts are in their early stages, people are helped by brighter lighting. As cataracts get worse, however, most people require surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Eye Anatomy

The eye is a complex organ that works much like a camera, focusing light rays and forming an image. On the surface of the eye is the cornea, a thin, clear layer of tissue that provides a window for light to pass through. In a healthy eye, the cornea bends or refracts light rays so they focus precisely on the retina in the back of the eye. ...


Read More...

Comprehensive Eye Examination

Regular eye examinations are important in maintaining eye health. During a comprehensive eye examination, eye diseases or other abnormalities that are not yet causing symptoms can be detected. Early intervention is crucial in preventing vision loss from a disease such as glaucoma, which may not cause symptoms until significant and irreversible damage has taken place. Early detection of eye problems gives a patient a choice of treatment options, and reduces the risk of permanent damage. ...


Read More...

Eye Infections

Eye infections can occur when a patient has been exposed to a virus, fungus or bacterium. Different types of infections strike particular portions of the eye. Both eyes or only one may become infected.

Symptoms of an Eye Infection

Common symptoms of an eye infection may include the following symptoms: ...


Read More...

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of related diseases that damage the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss and possible blindness. Many people affected with glaucoma do not experience symptoms, and may not be aware that they have the disease until they have lost a significant amount of vision. With early detection and treatment, however, eyes can be protected against the serious loss of vision or blindness. Catching glaucoma at an early, treatable stage is one important reason to have regular, thorough eye examinations. A leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States, glaucoma affects patients of all ages. ...


Read More...

Dry Eye

Dry eye is a common condition in which the eyes are insufficiently lubricated, leading to itching, redness and pain. The eyes can become dry and irritated because the tear ducts are not producing a sufficient number of tears, or because there is a chemical imbalance in the tears themselves. Natural tears require a particular chemical balance to lubricate the eyes efficiently. ...


Read More...

Sjogren's Syndrome

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that has two common identifying symptoms: dry mouth and dry eyes, but it may progress to affect joints, skin and vital organs. Women are more likely to suffer from this condition and patients are usually diagnosed with the disorder after the age of 40. The cause of Sjogren's syndrome is unknown, although genetic components seem to put some individuals at greater risk for developing the disease. There is some evidence that Sjogren's syndrome may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection. Often the syndrome occurs in patients who have another immune disorder, like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. ...


Read More...

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis, commonly referred to as pink eye, is an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. The inflammation affects the blood vessels in the eye and gives the eye a pink or red appearance. Pink eye can be caused by either a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, a foreign object in the eye or a blocked tear duct. Pink eye can be contagious, so proper diagnosis and prompt treatment are important. ...


Read More...

Chalazion

A chalazion is a small, non-infectious lump that develops in the upper or lower eyelid due to the blockage of the meibomian gland, an oil gland in the eyelid. The meibomian gland produces fluid that lubricates the eye. While children do develop chalazions, they more commonly affect adults between the ages of 30 to 50. ...


Read More...

Flashes and Floaters

Flashes and floaters of the eye are usually the result of age-related changes to the vitreous, which is the thick gel firmly attached to the retina from birth. During the aging process, however, the vitreous becomes thinner and more watery, and at some point pulls away from the retina. This is known as a posterior vitreous separation or detachment (PVD). During PVD, tissue debris that was once secure in the firm vitreous gel loosens and moves around, casting shadows on the retina. ...


Read More...

Keratitis

Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea. Keratitis often develops as the result of an infection, but can also be caused by a small scratch or prolonged contact lens wear. If left untreated, keratitis can lead to serious complications and can permanently damage vision.

Types of Keratitis

There are several types of keratitis. They include: ...


Read More...

Diabetic Eye Disease

Patients with diabetes are at a higher risk for developing eye conditions as a complication their disease. Over 40 percent of patients diagnosed with diabetes develop some form of eye disease as a result of their disease. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and the primary cause of blindness in the United States. ...


Read More...

Bifocal and Multifocal Eyeglass Lenses

Presbyopia, which is the visual inability of the lens of the eye to focus on objects that are close, may take years to develop. Patients usually begin to show symptoms of presbyopia in their early- to mid-40s. Bifocal or multifocal eyeglasses will provide patients with presbyopia the ability to see clearly at all distances. ...


Read More...

Contact Lenses

A contact lens is a thin, convex disc that floats on the surface of the eye, providing vision correction. With advances in optical technology, most people can use contact lenses, regardless of the type or extent of their vision problems. This includes patients with astigmatism, and those who need bifocal or multifocal lenses. In some cases, however, contact lenses are contraindicated. ...


Read More...

Vitamins for Healthy Eyes

Eye vitamins can help maintain eye health and protect our eyes against several different diseases, including those that most frequently affect aging eyes, including macular degeneration.

Experts disagree on which nutrients can prevent eye disease or reduce vision loss. Studies have been conducted to help us learn more about the relationship between vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and eye health. The general consensus is that the same things that are good for your body are good for your eyes: a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, drinking at least six glasses of water a day, regular exercise, and avoidance of cigarette smoke. ...


Read More...

Myopia

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness or shortsightedness, is a condition of the eyes in which nearby objects can be seen clearly, and but distant objects cannot. Almost a third of people in the United States experience some degree of nearsightedness.

Causes of Myopia

The curve of the cornea, the clear covering of the eye, refracts (bends) light, directing it to the retina, the back surface of the eye. When the corneal curvature is abnormal, or the shape of the eye is abnormally oblong, rather than round, it is more difficult for the eyes to focus light directly onto the retina. Instead, the focus is in front of the retina. This results in blurred vision. ...


Read More...

Presbyopia

Presbyopia, a condition in which the eyes gradually lose the ability to focus at a close range, is a normal part of the aging process. It occurs when the lens of the eye loses its flexibility, causing nearby objects to appear blurry. Symptoms take years to develop; most patients begin to show signs in their early-to-mid 40s. Typically, the condition worsens until about age 65. Presbyopia is diagnosed with a routine eye examination, and is treated with corrective lenses or surgery. ...


Read More...

Cataracts

Each year, cataracts affect millions of people, including more than half of all Americans aged 60 and older. A cataract is a painless clouding of the eye's natural lens that is caused by a buildup of protein. A cataract can form in one or both eyes. If left untreated, cataracts worsen over time and interfere with everyday activities such as reading or driving. Night vision is usually most affected. When cataracts are in their early stages, people are helped by brighter lighting. As cataracts get worse, however, most people require surgery. ...


Read More...